Model Mugging is based on muscle memory (operant conditioning). Students learn how to deal with the emotions of fear. In actual attacks, the initial reaction of victims is surprise. They freeze (as in the original traumatic event) in fear while falling into immobility. Immobility is where the mind goes blank and the student quickly becomes overwhelmed by the violence. Because being scared is natural, the Model Mugging System, through operant conditioning, teaches women how to recondition the “Freeze Response” thought many repetitions of being placed in the precise moment of an attack. In Model Mugging, women learn how to defend themselves in realistic scenarios and use “real” fear to their advantage by transforming it into positive fighting energy. They learn how to fight their way out of immobility. They also learn to deal with other feelings such as lack of confidence, helplessness and anger.